COS失败,Unlawful presence 天数怎么计算?

现在有F1->H1b的I-797A,附带的I-94在10月1日生效。如果10月1日之前SEVIS因为violate status被terminated,并且没有离境。unlawful presence 天数是只计算termination到10月1日之间,还是说10月1日以后也算unlawful presence? 还是说这中间都算authorized stay?

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对于 D/S 的 I-94,除非 DHS 书面通知你 fail to maintain status,否则都不算 unlawful presence。但是 10/01 以后还算不算 oos,有可能也是算的。建议出境搞个 H-1B stamp 把身份刷干净

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怎么会失败呢?是因为F1身份失效了吗

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对啊, 如果F1身份被学校中止,COS能成功吗

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If you’re an F-1 student dropping out of college, you will immediately lose your student status . The F-1 visa requires you to be enrolled as a full-time student in a U.S. college. Once you drop out, your Designated School Official (DSO) will update your status from “active” to “withdrawn.”

立刻离境,没有grace period , 重新申请其他类别签证

你是怎么violate status的?一般如果F1申请了H1b就有cap gap(就是维持F1身份,就算没有上学或做OPT)到9月30号。我不知道你的情况有没有什么不允许用cap gap的情况。

我猜是 COS 批了以后被 terminate 了

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因为暑假的时候用了CPT工作, 我又把CPT那门课drop了, 学校说打算中止SEVIS。 H1b和cap gap在5月份就批准了, 不知道还有效没有。

来让我们掏出又长又臭的 AFM https://www.uscis.gov/sites/default/files/document/policy-manual-afm/afm40-external.pdf

Chapter 40.9.2 (a)(2) Distinction Between “Unlawful Status” and “Unlawful Presence”


To understand the operation of sections 212(a)(9)(B) and 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the Act, it is important to comprehend the difference between being in an unlawful immigration status and the accrual of unlawful presence (“period of stay not authorized”). Although these concepts are related (one must be present in an unlawful status in order to accrue unlawful presence), they are not the same.

Example 3

An alien is admitted for “duration of status” as an F-1 nonimmigrant student. One year later, the alien drops out of school, and remains in the United States for one year after dropping out.

The alien’s status became unlawful when she dropped out of school. Neither USCIS nor an IJ ever makes a finding that the alien was out of status; therefore, she never accrues any unlawful presence for purposes of section 212(a)(9)(B) of the Act. AFM Chapter 40.9.2(b)(1)(E)(ii) .

The alien eventually leaves the United States and returns lawfully as a nonimmigrant. While in nonimmigrant status, a Form I-140 is approved and the alien applies for adjustment of status. Because the alien failed to maintain a lawful status for more than 180 days during her prior sojourn, she is ineligible for adjustment under section 245(c)(2) of the Act, and section 245(k) of the Act does not relieve her of this ineligibility.

Under section 245(k) of the Act, the alien is still eligible for adjustment(注:245(k) 仅适用于 EB1235), since the prior failure to maintain status does not apply to make the alien ineligible under section 245(c) of the Act. Also, the alien did not accrue unlawful presence despite the prior unlawful status, and so the alien is not inadmissible under section 212(a)(9)(B) of the Act.

这个 Example 就讲得很清楚:这个 alien out of status 长达一年,但是因为 USCIS 和 IJ (Immigration Judges) 都没有书面通知她 OOS,因此,不累积任何的 unlawful presence for purposes of section 212(a)(9)(B) of the Act。

unlawful presence 是一个专用术语,特指 INA 202(a)(9)(B) 里头那个 inadmissible bar。

但是,不累计 unlawful presence 不代表是没有后果的。比如说,这种 OOS 以后,visa stamp 就自动失效了,所以比如说还以 F-1 进来,到了 CBP 那里可以把你遣返,不是因为 unlawful presence inadmissible,而是因为你的签证无效了。然后,因为有长时间的 OOS,F-1 又收到万金油“移民倾向”条款的约束,除非有很强的理由,否则可能会导致签证很难签下来。

又比如说,基于 INA 245(c)(2),任何曾经的 OOS,都会导致 ineligible to AOS (aka. I-485),(注:不代表 ineligible to 绿卡,因为还可以走 consular processing)。但是 EB1235 又是特例,有 245(k) 把 245(c)(2) override 了,这里头就更复杂了。

我们继续来看
(b) Determining When an Alien Accrues Unlawful Presence
(1) Aliens Present in Lawful Status or as Parolees

p75

(E) Lawful Nonimmigrants

The period of authorized stay for a nonimmigrant may end on a specific date or may continue for “duration of status (D/S).” Under current USCIS policy, nonimmigrants begin to accrue unlawful presence as follows:

(i) Nonimmigrants Admitted until a Specific Date (Date Certain)

Nonimmigrants admitted until a specific date will generally begin to accrue unlawful presence the day following the date the authorized period of admission expires, as noted on Form I-94 , Arrival/Departure Record.

If USCIS finds, during the adjudication of a request for immigration benefit, that the alien has violated his or her nonimmigrant status, unlawful presence will begin to accrue either the day after Form I-94 expires or the day after USCIS denies the request, whichever is earlier.

If an immigration judge makes a determination of nonimmigrant status violation in exclusion, deportation or removal proceedings, unlawful presence begins to accrue the day after the immigration judge’s order or the day after the Form I-94 expired, whichever is earlier.

It must be emphasized that the accrual of unlawful presence neither begins on the date that a status violation occurs, nor on the day on which removal proceedings are initiated. Removal proceedings have no impact on whether an individual is accruing unlawful presence. See 8 CFR 239.3 .

(ii) Nonimmigrants Admitted for Duration of Status (D/S).

If USCIS finds a nonimmigrant status violation while adjudicating a request for an immigration benefit, unlawful presence will begin to accrue on the day after the request is denied. If an immigration judge makes a determination of nonimmigrant status violation in exclusion, deportation, or removal proceedings, unlawful presence begins to accrue the day after the immigration judge’s order. It must be emphasized that the accrual of unlawful presence neither begins on the date that a status violation occurs, nor on the day on which removal proceedings are initiated. See 8 CFR 239.3.

这里说了很明白了:

  • 对于 B / H 这种 I-94 有明确的过期时间的人来说,I-94 过期后就马上开始累计 unlawful presence(有 pending COS/EOS/AOS 的除外,在 AFM 里头的其他地方)
  • 对于 F 这种 I-94 是 D/S 的人来说,只有在 USCIS 在审理 case 过程当中发现了 status violation 并拒掉了 case(会有拒信),或者移民法官做了让滚蛋的决定,才开始积累 unlawful presence

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最后补一句,移民法非常复杂,不同的条款、概念之间,都可能相互关联,但是又不一定一样,引起的后果也不尽相同,违反以后的补救方式也千差万别的。以上均为通用信息,不代表个例的建议。

就楼主的情况,通常的建议就是,out of status 以后尽快离境,并且重新办理签证入境。如果对自己的情况有更多的疑问或者想法,建议咨询移民律师。

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太感谢了! 所以说即使学校通知了,USCIS没通知就不算unlawful presence?
那按你的说法,10月1号以后的时间肯定是不算unlawful presence的,那算不算out of status呢

算的。

我突然想起来之前在一个一亩三分地的 DP,有个人,F-1 转 H-1B 了,一直没离境过,后来婚绿,走的 F2A,被拒了。原因就是发现了 F-1 期间有 out of status,所以后面一直都算是 out of status,因此 ineligible for AOS。

仔细想想也合理,虽然 USCIS 批了你 COS,但是还是未生效的,在 9/30 你总得有一个的 status,10/1 才可以给你 change 对吧。但是你在 9/30 前都已经 violate 了,10/1 之后当然还是 out of status 的状态了

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那这个人后来怎么样了? 是不是出境签证就行了

后面我就没继续关注了。按理来说当事人只要在 485 被拒以后及时离境,就不会积累太多的 unlawful presence(从 485 被拒开始算),CP 应该是可以的

话说, cap-gap extension是USCIS批准的, 不是学校批准的吧, 学校真的有资格中止cap-gap吗

学校并没有中止 Cap-Gap。这又有一系列的问题,准确地说,应该这样理解:

  1. regulation 要求 F-1 的日期不能超过 XXX
  2. COS 批准以后,以上 regulation 被 Cap Gap 的 regulation 给 override 了

但是,这并不影响,你依旧需要在 Cap Gap 期间维持 F-1 的身份。

你要不想立即离境办签证就赶紧去找移民律师仔细评估你的情况吧,论坛里头的人跟你都不满足 attorney - client 的关系,不会也不合适仔细调查你所有身份的情况从而给出精准的建议

所以即使学校翻之前cpt的旧账, cap-gap学校又无法中止所以拿我没办法, 所以USCIS大概率并不知道, 所以大概率不会觉得我OOS是吗。

我问过两个律师, 包括当时负责办H1b的律师了, 感觉他们并没有很懂,说法也不一致。

现在能约的签证时间都几个月之后了, 实在赶不上工作

CPT 和 F-1 status maintain 这一块我就不是很熟悉,但是还是那句话,只要你搞不清楚,这种可能影响、可能不影响的,通用的从谨慎角度出发的建议就是,赶紧离境,办 H-1B 签证重新进来

现在能约的签证时间都几个月之后了, 实在赶不上工作

那至少把几个月之后的约上,然后期间多刷刷,刷到了就赶紧去签,回来刷一刷。

不过要是不问就无所谓,但是,CO 是有可能问题,以你的 best knowledge,你有没有违反过身份。你得想好怎么回答,要不然一不小心踩到了 willful misrepresentation 这条,就几乎永久 inadmissible 了

上面已经分析过了目前这段肯定不算unlawful presence, 即使有可能算OOS, 所以并不会触发3/10年的禁止入境,所以近期离境签证的意义不大?